Section 1

推广绿地指定,为农民节省财产税, 根据农业生产而不是市场价值来评估土地

Who can implement this: State, county, and city lawmakers; advocacy organizations; and agricultural producers

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4001百老汇会员登录农田评估法案》允许4001百老汇会员登录的农民和牧场主根据其生产能力而不是房地产市场价值对其农业资产进行评估和征税. [1]

4001百老汇会员登录税务委员会与其他委员会和4001百老汇会员登录立大学合作,建立适用于全州的生产力价值, 为不同的土地分类设定每英亩的价值. 每一块合格的土地在申请时都根据其现有特征和在其上种植的农业类型进行分类. This classification process gives the land a new value to be assessed and taxed on.

绿色地带是为了更准确地反映农地和经营的真实价值,并降低税率,以阻止土地所有者将农地出售给住宅开发商. As a result, 绿带的指定可以提高农业经营的经济可行性,并保护犹他县现有的农田.

绿地也是该县遗产的一部分,可以使社区更可取、更宜居. These areas provide green, open spaces, 哪一个可以改善空气质量,减少城市热岛效应.

绿地申请必须从犹他县农田评估官处获得. 为了目前符合绿地指定的资格,一块土地必须: 

  1. Be at least five contiguous acres,
  2. 已经积极致力于农业用途至少两年,
  3. Be managed in a way that there is expectation of profit,
  4. 满足平均年产量要求(至少是该县平均每英亩产量的50%).

Applications must be submitted by May 1st of the tax year. 结果评估有效,除非土地所有者填写另一份申请退出绿地指定.

州和地方立法者应与农业组织合作,更好地了解土地所有者申请绿地指定的期望,并探索简化申请过程的方法.

Implementation:

  • 4001百老汇会员登录农业和食品部应该更好地让农民和牧场主了解绿地财产价值指定的好处. Though the greenbelt system has significant benefits, landowners must be aware of the program and must individually apply for greenbelt designation, 这意味着如果他们不知道这个机会的存在,他们可能会错过这个机会.
  • 建议州和县立法者寻求扩大城市农业评估法案. 这项法案应该扩大,以便特别适用于犹他县, as it is to Salt Lake County. 扩大该法案可能还会允许更多非常规形式的农业, possibly including indoor agriculture.
  • Producers on smaller lots should utilize the Urban Farming Assessment Act where applicable. 该法案允许在2-4块土地之间进行农业生产.99英亩的土地将被征收与符合绿地条件的房产类似的税, 将房产税从市场税率降低到更合理的成本.

Examples:

4001百老汇会员登录农田评估法案》的制定是为了专门帮助农民和牧场主保护该州不断扩大的城市地区附近的农业土地. Individual county assessors are responsible for assessing land within their jurisdiction, 4001百老汇会员登录县评估办公室有一名专门的农田评估员,负责监督4001百老汇会员登录农田评估法案在全县的实施.


Support Transitioning to Specialty Crops and Niche Products with High Returns where Feasible, and Utilize Value-Added Processing Methods

Who can implement this: State and county lawmakers, and agricultural producers

犹他县拥有理想的小气候,适合许多需求量很大的特殊作物和利基产品. 4001百老汇会员登录的种植者已经成功地生产和销售酸樱桃和甜樱桃等特色作物, pears, apples, raspberries, peaches, tree nuts, and vegetables. 从干草和苜蓿等常见作物转向其他特色作物可能会让种植者以更高的价格出售他们的产量, improving farm revenues. 高价值的特色作物在犹他县既可行,又相对贫瘠,包括杏子, quinoa, lavender, pine nuts, and some herbs and vegetables.

种植者还可以通过增值加工获得更高的收入. 增值加工是指将农产品原料现场转化为消费者即食食品. 其他增加农产品价值的潜在方法包括利用每个农民的独特技能和资源来实施与加工有关的战略, packaging, or marketing. 即使是小型农场也可以通过创造独特的(更有价值的)产品和副产品组合的增值加工来显著增加收入.[1]

Implementation:

A major aspect of this strategy is education-based, 增加和补充了农民现有的关于哪些特色作物在4001百老汇会员登录生长良好的知识, 他们的农产品原料可以加工出哪些特色产品, which products are in local market demand, 如果他们开始种植特殊作物来取代更常见的作物,如何改变耕作方式

4001百老汇会员登录县可能会实施特定的项目,以促进特色作物生产或鼓励农民探索增值加工,作为向当地经济介绍独特产品的一种手段,同时增加他们自己的收入.

  • 4001百老汇会员登录立大学应该继续开展推广项目,解释特产作物和增值加工如何增加农民的农业收入 and add value to the local economy. In addition, 大学应该提供有关激励措施和资金的教育,以帮助农民利用这些机会.
  •  It is recommended that the county work with state and national farm organizations to provide incentives and funding for farmers who are exploring the viability of specialty crops or new ways to process products. 这样的组织包括4001百老汇会员登录农业和食品部, United States Department of Agriculture, Utah Farm Bureau, etc.
  • Farmers and ranchers can look into potential market niches in their local economies 评估他们的特殊产品和附加工艺是否可行.
  • If viable, 个体农场应制定战略并获得资金,以追求特定形式的增值农业, 通过仔细的计划来确保最大的利润和最小的成本.
  • 4001百老汇会员登录农业部应与州议员和农民合作,开发一个国营加工设施/商业农业厨房 帮助农民探索开发不同种类的农产品.

Examples:

Rowley’s Red Barn in Santaquin, Utah, 这是特色作物种植最成功的例子之一吗, value-added processing, and agritourism in Utah. 罗利家族通过生产特殊作物来满足农业经济中利润丰厚的利基市场的需求, primarily cherries and apples. 罗利家族利用增值加工生产出从樱桃干到新鲜冰淇淋等特色产品,进一步发挥了他们在当地经济中的独特作用.[2]

The Utah Department of Agriculture and Food runs the Specialty Crop Block Grant Program. This program awards money to projects that work solely to enhance the competitiveness of U.S.-grown specialty crops, which benefits specialty crop growers across the state and nation. 4001百老汇会员登录农业部特别感兴趣的是提高4001百老汇会员登录特色作物的整体生存能力,并了解4001百老汇会员登录的气候和生长条件可能有利于它们的生长. 国家机构、组织和大学都可以获得资金.[3]

The U.S. 农业部的增值生产者补助计划通过匹配新农户和老农户的资金,帮助农民开展与加工和销售相关的增值活动.[4] These grants range in size up to $250,000,可以作为一个重要的资源,小型生产者寻求扩大其农业经营,填补更独特的, specialized need for products in their communities.

4001百老汇会员登录立大学的食品质量和创业项目, created by the school’s food product entrepreneurial specialist, provides valuable resources to producers looking to create and market new products.[5] 资源范围从信息材料到研讨会和课程,都旨在消除食品行业的障碍. 该项目帮助农民完成创造增值产品的每一步, allowing them to develop their products in an incubator kitchen, providing expertise about marketing, 并使有关法规和认证的信息更容易获得.[6] Individual entrepreneurs can schedule the program’s test kitchen at Community Action in Provo.[7]


Promote and Implement Practices that Reduce Operational Costs and Increase Revenue

Who can implement this: 政府组织,宣传组织和农业生产者

Farmers can increase revenues by exploring new technologies. New and different practices in the production, upkeep, 收割农作物可以降低农场的运营成本.[1]

农民和牧场主也可以通过开发利基市场的产品来增加收入. Farmers could work with other farmers, both local and nationwide, 开发新工艺和改进现有产品,以创造新的和更有价值的产品. 农业生产者还可以与其他小规模农民和牧场主合作,以增加他们的采购和营销能力.

Implementation:

  • 4001百老汇会员登录立大学应继续寻找扩大现有资源的方法,以帮助支持农民降低运营成本,更有效地生产和加工农产品出口.
  • Farmers and ranchers should form partnerships 与其他当地和全国范围内的农业生产者密切合作,将买卖权结合起来 and explore ways to more efficiently market, ship, and otherwise process their products. This combined power allows for local farmers and ranchers to explore new products, marketing methods, and other ways to improve revenues and the overall quality and reach of their operations.

Examples:

罗利红谷仓的罗利夫妇与加州大学戴维斯分校的农业研究人员以及密歇根和俄勒冈州的生产商合作,开创了晾晒樱桃的新方法.[2] Rowley’s Red Barn is now working with Michigan’s Cherry Central, 将他们的购买和销售能力结合起来,成为美国领先的樱桃生产商.

Nutri-Mulch, of the Moroni Feed Company, is a natural compost created with the used turkey bedding of five million turkeys.[3] 这种副产品被加工成无杂草堆肥,缓慢释放养分,改善植物根系结构, water-drainage, and air penetration.

Sheep ranchers Logan and Albert Wilde of Croydon, Utah, 用羊毛生产产生的废料制造肥料颗粒. 这一创新为羊毛业务提供了额外的收入来源, improved the profitability of the ranch, and reduced the amount of wool that was thrown away.[4]

麦克穆林果园与4001百老汇会员登录县推广部门合作,使用4001百老汇会员登录农业和食品部提供的特色作物补助金. 这些资金用于开始使用樱桃核作为土壤和肥料的一部分,使生产者能够利用樱桃加工过程中未充分利用的副产品.[5]


帮助农民制定营销计划和流程,以提高收入并确保他们的产品被销售出去

Who can implement this: Communities, universities, governmental organizations, advocacy organizations, and agricultural producers

营销是农业生产的一个关键方面,但常常被忽视. Marketing plans for farmers need to be substantial and holistic. 农民和牧场主可能会受益于扩大他们的产品营销知识,而不是完全依赖于农贸市场或任何一种渠道进行产品销售. 使用不同的分销渠道可以帮助农民和牧场主更好地推销他们的产品,增加收入. To be successful, however, 这些营销和销售方法需要其他生产者以及整个社区的支持.

Implementation:

  • 大学和农场组织应该让农业生产者参与进来,支持他们的营销工作. Together, they should explore different avenues of delivering agricultural products to consumers, 考虑到不同社区的独特条件.
  • 犹他县及其城市应该与农场合作,改善农场的产品品牌和营销计划. 这样的改进可以让农场有更多的曝光机会,并有助于提升该市和县作为农业社区的声誉. 政府通讯列表和通信网络可以用来向居民通报农场和产品.
  • 4001百老汇会员登录的Own是一个组织,为农民提供了一个独特的渠道来宣传产品,并让当地的作物进入更多的商店货架. 4001百老汇会员登录的Own应该继续接触农民,帮助提高公众对可以在当地购买农产品的认识.

Examples:

美国农业部农村发展部管理农村商业发展赠款,可用于帮助生产者 营销产品,以新的方式包装产品,并开发新的产品线.[1]

4001百老汇会员登录立大学推广中心举办了教育农民的研讨会和课程, ranchers, 和其他企业主谈论拥有小企业的关键问题. These topics range from problem solving in entrepreneurship to developing marketing plans.[2]


Explore a Variety of Food Distribution Systems to Help Local Food Thrive in Utah County

Who can implement this: State and county lawmakers, communities, governmental organizations, advocacy organizations, and agricultural producers

A lack of efficient, 无障碍的食品配送系统可能会成为农民在当地分销食品的障碍. 更有效的粮食分配系统将改善农产品的销售, better enabling farmers to connect to consumers. Many crops, such as vegetables, may produce a greater return than current crops, 但在4001百老汇会员登录没有加工设施,也没有当地的配送系统, farmers are unlikely to grow these crops. Local food systems provide the fresh, 4001百老汇会员登录居民越来越想要和渴望的应季产品. Having strong local systems also improves the resiliency of Utah’s food distribution, 使4001百老汇会员登录居民能够购买更多的4001百老汇会员登录产品,减少对从加州和墨西哥等地进口食品的依赖.

  • Local food systems include the following options:
  • Food hubs and co-ops
  • Farmers markets
  • On-site farm stands (or pick-your-own farms)
  • 社区支持农业(消费者购买当地农场预计收成的份额)
  • Traditional grocery stores, schools, and restaurants

食物中心是由一个组织运营的本地节点,旨在将社区和消费者与当地食物联系起来. 它们为农业生产者提供了一个销售产品的场所,并加强了生产者及其周围社区的经济和社会关系. 这些中心和合作社使农民和牧场主能够获得传统食品分销系统中通常流向杂货店的利润, which increases local producers’ revenues and often decreases the prices of fresh, local products. 粮食中心有助于积极管理产品的聚集和分销,并经常为农民和牧场主提供技术和营销援助,帮助他们创造和销售商品.[1]

A farmers market is a public, 农民或他们的代表聚集在一起向消费者出售他们的食品和产品的经常性活动.[2] Farmers markets facilitate personal connections that mutually benefit local farmers, shoppers, and communities. These markets, for instance, 允许生产者出售在杂货店买不到的独特产品, and they help the community learn about healthy eating and where local products are grown. As a community experience, 农贸市场是人们与邻居见面的地方, friends, and farmers in an environment that is friendly, educational, and enriching.

Farm stands are permanent or temporary structures, usually operated at specific times of the year, where farmers display and sell agricultural goods.[3] 成功的农场摊位通常位于车辆频繁的地方,潜在客户可以很容易地看到农产品并购买它们. 这些场所为社区提供了更多的当地食品,并允许农民灵活选择销售他们的产品. Pick-your-own farms allow consumers to go into farmers’ fields and harvest crops themselves.[4] These farms are marketing channels for those consumers who like to select and purchase fresher, higher-quality, vine-ripened produce at lower prices. 农民同样受益于收获和劳动需求的减少, lower equipment costs, and opportunities for larger transactions per customer. Good crop types for this type of operation include berries, tree fruit, pumpkins, and Christmas trees.[5]

In community supported agriculture, growers and consumers support one another and share the risks and benefits of food production.[6] Typically, 农场或花园的成员或“股东”预先承诺支付农场运营的预期成本和农民的工资. In return, 他们在整个生长季节都能分享农场的收成,并获得与土地相连并直接参与粮食生产所带来的满足感.

通过Utah 's Own继续利用营销策略对帮助4001百老汇会员登录获得他们想要的产品非常重要.[7] Utah’s Own provides information about where people can purchase locally grown products, 这有助于支持和加强该县的农业产业. 促进当地产品的销售也对4001百老汇会员登录的经济产生了积极的影响, as money spent in Utah stays in the local economy, benefiting our small businesses.

尽管新的食品分配系统可以显著提高4001百老汇会员登录县农产品的可获得性, improving older systems can be an equally effective and viable strategy for some communities. 现有的传统粮食分配系统应进行修改和改进,以更好地适应当地农民和牧场主. By sourcing their food from local farmers and ranchers, grocers, restaurants, 学校可以提供更健康、更新鲜的农产品和餐食,同时被动地教育他们的社区有关当地食品的知识. 餐馆和社区杂货店在使用或销售当地农产品时应该做广告,以吸引更多的客户,同时支持当地生产者.

Implementation:

Food Hubs and Co-ops

  • Utah County needs to facilitate the creation of one or more co-ops or food hubs in the county. Depending on the support from the community, 该县应提供资源和援助,以推进这一进程. 合作杂货商信息网络有一个关于如何开始一个食品中心的信息丰富的指南.[8] The guide contains useful checklists of tasks for each step in creating a food hub.

Farmers Markets

  • 社区领导人应改进其农贸市场的营销 to increase awareness, interest, and demand at these events. Doing so will increase exposure and sales for farmers.
  • 犹他县应与各城市合作,更好地了解全县农贸市场的需求 如有需要,与社区合作创建新的农贸市场. 加州大学的小农场项目有详细的一步一步的指南,在一个社区开始一个新的农贸市场.[9]

On-Site Farm Stands and Pick-Your-Own Farms

  • 如果农民的作物和经营方式与自选策略兼容,他们应该研究一下这种方法是否对他们有益. 田纳西大学农业研究所有一个很好的指南,可以帮助那些想要建立自己采摘业务的农民.[10] 本指南列出了常见的自选作物,并概述了识别良好商业实践和潜在风险的策略.

Community Supported Agriculture

  • 农民应调查社区支持的农业生产对他们来说是否可行和有益. 北卡罗莱纳州合作推广组织为有兴趣开展社区支持农业(CSA)计划的农民提供了一份资源指南.[11]

Traditional Food Distribution Systems

  • Whenever possible, grocery stores, schools, restaurants, 其他现有的食品分销网络应与当地生产者合作(遵守所有必要的法规),以使用和销售当地食品. 私人组织应与许多当地生产者合作,建立更好地将企业和学校与当地现有食品来源联系起来的系统.

Examples:

The Provo Farmers Market is a particularly successful local farmers market in Utah County. 市场每周在普罗沃的先锋公园举行,以活动为特色, local food, artists, and other vendors. 这个市场为当地居民提供了一个方便购买当地食品的机会,同时在温暖的月份里也是一个热闹的社区中心. Though the market is immensely popular, it only runs from June to October, so outside that timeframe, local food must be distributed through other avenues.[12]

4001百老汇会员登录还有一个社区支持农业(CSA)计划,致力于将全州的农场与当地社区连接起来. Community members can purchase a share of a local farmer’s produce, often at below market price.[13] CSA Utah already partners with many growers in Utah County, though there is always room for expansion. 该组织的网站列出了人们可以从当地农民和种植者那里购买股票的地方.[14]

Utah has only two co-ops, both located in the Salt Lake Valley. The Community Co-Op is located in Salt Lake City and features a direct-to-door delivery service, allowing community members to receive fresh, local produce without having to leave their houses. 社区合作社以平均价格比大多数杂货店低20%到50%而自豪.[15] 犹他合作社位于默里,也以比大型杂货店更低的价格出售当地农产品. Though most co-ops require a membership, membership in the Utah Co-Op is free for Utah residents.[16]

4001百老汇会员登录的Own项目旨在创造一种消费文化,让消费者可以在零售店选择4001百老汇会员登录的产品, restaurants, and everywhere else consumers shop. When Utah consumers purchase locally produced or grown products, our economy grows; $1.00 spent on a Utah product results in $4.00– $6.00 being added to the economy. In addition, 购买本地产品可以通过减少这些产品的碳足迹来改善环境.[17]

4001百老汇会员登录的Own有一个全面的网站,消费者可以在上面搜索当地农场和牧场,并找到有关特定农场的信息,以及在哪里购买当地商品. Farmers can join Utah’s Own at no cost. “会员通过全州分会享受企业对企业网络和足智多谋的培训的好处. Chapter leaders, selected from current membership, serve across the state and offer a valuable resource to current and potential business owners. . . . In addition, 所有成员都被鼓励在他们当地的营销活动中使用4001百老汇会员登录自己的商标品牌, 以及参加4001百老汇会员登录全年提供的活动.”[18]


Promote Agritourism

Who can implement this: 州和县的立法者,倡导组织和农业生产者

农业旅游是指让公众观赏或体验农业的娱乐活动, entertainment, or educational purposes. Agritourism includes, but is not limited to, agricultural activities for families, ranching activities, and historic, cultural, or natural attractions. 农业旅游通过将农场展示给社区和提供额外的收入来源(这可以增加小农场的经济可行性),使农场主受益。. As they participate in unique, hands-on farming experiences, agritourists may learn to see food differently and develop a desire to protect local farms. 虽然农业旅游可能并不适用于所有的农业经营, 它对犹他县的几个农场来说很有价值,也很成功.

Implementation:

  • 建议犹他县的农业生产者鼓励州和县立法者制定具体的法规和政策,以促进和激励农业旅游. 这些守则将确立农业旅游的指导方针和参数,并使其成为农民和牧场主更广为人知和可行的收入来源.
  • 政府和非营利农业组织应确保农民和牧场主了解农业旅游的好处,以及如何在他们的财产上建立农业旅游计划. 这些组织应简化建立和开展农业旅游的过程,使农业旅游法更容易理解和普及. 虽然张贴访客责任通知是农民在开始农业旅游业务之前严格要求采取的唯一步骤, 他们应该考虑其他几个问题,以最大限度地提高他们的企业成功的可能性:
    • Farmers and ranchers must determine what activities they want to have available on the farm, what they want to sell, and the staffing needs for these services and products. 他们可以参考本地区其他成功的农业旅游农场,以确定过去哪些是成功的,以及他们可以适应哪些利基市场.
    • 农业生产者必须根据农业旅游业务的物质和人员需求制定商业计划. Pricing for both admission and products must also be determined. 当地社区大学或商业中心通常会帮助创业者制定商业计划
    • 农业旅游企业必须确保他们遵守当地法规和卫生部门,并提供停车和美国残疾人法无障碍等需求. 这些企业还必须确保自己有责任保险.
    • Farmers and ranchers must establish and implement a marketing plan to attract agritourists. 这些营销计划可能很复杂,对农业旅游业务的成功至关重要.[1]

Examples:

罗利的红谷仓是该州最成功的农业旅游项目之一. The farm has a thriving school-tour system and hosts events for visitors year-round. 农场经营着自己的商店和供应冰淇淋的冰淇淋店, cider slushes, shakes, and a variety of fountain sodas. Most small-scale producers may not be able to create such a large agritourism business, 但罗利的红谷仓是一个很好的例子,说明了如何确定一个特定的农业旅游利基市场,并扩大产品和服务,以满足这个利基市场的需求.

从4月到10月,南约旦的彼得森家庭农场每周五晚上都会举办一场食品卡车活动.[2] 这个活动带来了各种各样的食品卡车,帮助人们在一个独特而愉快的环境中接触农产品.

韦伯县有一个具体的规范来管理农业旅游的用途,并清楚地解释农民和牧场主如何在他们的农场上利用农业旅游.[3] 该准则明确概述了农业旅游活动,并使其局限性和好处可以理解.

The University of California Davis has a Small Farm Program that focuses on agritourism. Through resources such as classes and projects, the program brings together community members, students, and local farms, 探索不同形式的农业旅游,并分析随着越来越多的人开始参与,这个相对较新的领域是如何变化的.[4]

 


为农民和牧场主制定继任计划、培训和教育

Who can implement this: 县官员、政府组织和宣传组织

According to the U.S. Labor Department, the average age of a farmer or rancher is 58 years old, an average that is gradually increasing.[1] [2] The average age of U.S. farm operators increased from 55.3 in 2002 to 58.3 in 2012 according to the Census of Agriculture.[3] In addition, 佛蒙特大学的farmlast项目估计,在未来20年内,全国70%的私人农田将发生所有权变更.[4] 农业的未来是一个问题,因为选择农业作为职业的人比以前少,越来越多的年轻人追求农业和牧场以外的职业. 适当的接班计划有助于确保当农场主退休时,有人可以随时接管农场的业务.

继任计划是将农业企业的管理和所有权从一代正式过渡到下一代的过程. Since individuals’ relationships and situations vary, 没有一个单一的计划可以适用于每个家庭或企业. 一些计划的例子包括将家庭农场完全出售给年轻一代(或第三方)。, rely primarily on passing down lands to other generations, 或者涉及组建企业,以帮助在未来实现转型,或者将大型业务分成较小的业务, discrete parts to support different families.

继承计划允许一个农业家庭以他们想要的方式转移企业的管理和所有权. It also encourages the family to address legal, tax, and family issues in advance (when they are best prepared), rather than being forced to deal with them quickly after the death of the farmer or rancher.[5]

为即将接管的人准备农场经营,确保下一代能够继续4001百老汇会员登录的农业遗产. 许多小型家庭农场没有明确的计划来指导未来的所有权过渡. 没有制定明确的继承计划或确定接管农场经营的潜在候选人,可能会导致农场没有继承人, farmers being unable to retire, and agricultural land being sold for other uses.

Implementation:

  • Utah County, the Utah Department of Agriculture and Food, 私人组织应该为农民提供培训和推广服务 农地经营权和所有权向不同代人转移的细节和挑战.
  • 继任计划的重要步骤可能包括:[6]
  1. Defining goals and objectives: Do farmers want to pass along the entire business and its assets, or do they want to lease the land?
  2. 确定潜在的继任者,并制定继任时间表
  3. 安排与顾问(律师、会计、财务顾问、离职规划师等)的会议.讨论如何实施继承,并完成遗产规划
  4. Creating plans for the business and for retirement
  5. 组建适当的业务实体并创建法律协议,如经营协议和买卖协议
  6. 制定接班人培养和所有权转移计划
  7. Communicating throughout the planning process and making revisions and adjustments as needed

Examples:

新泽西州农业部为退休农民整合了许多农场转让和继承规划资源.[7]

Pennsylvania has a Preserved Farms Resource Center dedicated to succession planning. 该中心帮助退休农民与年轻一代农民建立联系,并帮助新农民在农业社区中站稳脚跟.[8]

爱荷华州的“农业链接计划”将需要农田的初级农民与没有继承人或继承人的退休农民联系起来. 该计划是退休农民的强大资源,使社区更容易地在几代人之间维护农业土地.[9]

4001百老汇会员登录立大学以及农场局金融服务等私人组织协助农民将农业企业的管理和所有权从一代过渡到下一代.[10]